There are many locations where there is no 230V connection;

  • MSR customer stations (via customer only)
  • Oil pressure measuring points?
  • Gas stations

To digitise the network even there, an energy source is needed to power the components. Probably the solution will depend on the type of network and how energy can be 'extracted' there. Ideas are:

  • Voltage transformers
  • Harvesting energy from electromagnetic fields

Research group